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David L. Dunner, M.D., FACPsych, M.D., MD

Dr. Dunner is the Director of the Center for Anxiety and Depression, a private consulting psychiatric practice located in Mercer Island, WA, and is Professor Emeritus at the University of Washington in Seattle.

Dr. Dunner earned his AA at George Washington University in Washington, DC, and his MD at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri.  After graduating, he completed his internship at Philadelphia General Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and his residency in psychiatry at Washington University School of Medicine.  He then spent two years at the NIMH and was involved in research studies of bipolar depression.  Among these research studies was the development of the concept of bipolar spectrum disorders - particularly, Bipolar I and Bipolar II.

After NIMH, Dr. Dunner spent eight years at Columbia University (Assistant, then Associate Professor of Clinical Psychiatry) and at the New York State Psychiatric Institute.  He worked for Dr. Ronald Fieve and published studies of clinical, biological, familial and outcome factors comparing unipolar and bipolar disorders.  Among these research studies was the identification of rapid cycling as a major factor leading to poor treatment outcome with lithium.

From 1978 to 2006, Dr. Dunner was at the University of Washington (Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences).  He was Chief of Psychiatry at Harborview Medical Center and later the Director of the University of Washington Psychiatry Outpatient Center.  He was Director of the Center for Anxiety and Depression while at the University and has moved the Center to his private location.  He developed a clinical trials unit (PharmacoResearch) for the study of psychiatric disorders and collaborated with individuals from Psychology and Radiology as well as colleagues in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.  He has mentored several individuals who have progressed to established academic careers.  He was actively involved as a teacher in the medical school and continues to teach in the psychiatry residency program and at continuing medical education events for practitioners.

Dr. Dunner is a member of several scientific organizations: American Psychiatric Association (Distinquished Life Fellow); The American College of Psychiatrists (Emeritus Fellow, former Member of the Board of Regents); American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (Fellow Emeritus); American Psychopathological Association (Fellow, former President); Psychiatric Research Society (former President); Society of Biological Psychiatry (former President); West Coast College of Biological Psychiatry (former President); Colleqium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (International College of Neuropsychopharmacology) (Fellow); Clinical TMS Society. Dr. Dunner serves on several editorial boards and was Editor-in-Chief of Comprehensive Psychiatry until the end of 2014, when he retired from that position.

Dr. Dunner’s research interests were primarily devoted to psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments for mood and anxiety disorders.  He has authored or co-authored more than 370 articles and edited or co-edited more than 10 books.  His clinical focus is on difficult to treat patients with depression and bipolar disorders.  He is involved in the treatment of patients who have treatment resistant mood disorders with various pharmacotherapies including augmentation strategies, esketamine nasal spray (Spravato), and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and is a referral source for other treatments, such as ECT and VNS. He is the principal investigator of the CAD site for the “RECOVER” study, a long-term study of the effects of VNS for treatment resistant depression.


Linda L. Carpenter, M.D., MD

Dr. Carpenter is a Professor of Psychiatry in the Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Chief of the Mood Disorders Program at Butler Hospital. Dr. Carpenter completed her undergraduate degree at the University of Michigan, her MD from the University of Pennsylvania, and internship in internal medicine, a residency program in psychiatry, and a clinical neuroscience research fellowship at Yale University. She joined the faculty at Brown in 1997 and has continued her path as a physician-scientist investigating the neurobiology of, and new treatments for, major depression and other mood and anxiety disorders. She led a 10-year, federally funded translational research program focusing on the development of laboratory biomarkers signaling risk for mood/anxiety disorders, and understanding the impact of early life stress on adult biology. She has also conducted a number of randomized clinical trials sponsored by industry and NIH, investigating investigational drugs and devices for treating depression, including Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS), Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). She is the founding Director of the Butler Hospital TMS Clinic and Neuromodulation Research Facility where she treats patients with pharmacoresistant depression and works with a variety of Brown-based research faculty who incorporate noninvasive brain stimulation techniques into their clinical research. Her current research projects involve using imaging and EEG biomarkers to optimize and individually customize TMS therapy for depression.

Paul E. Croarkin, D.O., MSc

Dr. Croarkin is a Professor of Psychiatry and the Research Co-Chair for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science. Dr. Croarkin’s research program focuses on adapting and innovating brain stimulation interventions in children and adolescents.  This includes biomarker work to optimize diagnostic practices and the delivery of brain based interventions such as transcranial magnetic stimulation.  A central theme focuses on the  role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate neurotransmitter systems in early-onset mood disorders with the goal of informing safer and more effective biologic treatments. This research is funded by a variety of industry, federal, and foundation grants.

Harold A. Sackeim, Ph.D.

Dr.  Sackeim is Professor of Clinical Psychology in Psychiatry and Radiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University.  He served as Chief of the Department of Biological Psychiatry at the New York State Psychiatric Institute for 25 years. He is also the Founding Editor of the journal, Brain Stimulation: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation.  He received his first B.A. from Columbia College, Columbia University (1972), another B.A. and an M.A. from Magdalen College, Oxford University (1974) and his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania (1977), where he also completed his clinical training in the Department of Psychiatry. He joined the faculty of Columbia University in 1977, where he remains today.


Dr. Chen is a psychiatrist active in clinical practice, psychiatry research, and medical education in Melbourne, Australia. He has a particular interest in neurostimulation therapeutic modalities and conducts TMS and pharmacotherapeutic research at Monash University, in one of Australia's first and most pre-eminent neurostimulation research centres led by Professor Paul Fitzgerald. His work has been published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at local and international conferences.

F. Andrew Kozel, M.D., M.D., M.S.C.R.

Dr. Kozel is Professor and the Mina Jo Powell Endowed Chair for Neurological Sciences at Florida State University College of Medicine where he directs FSU Neuromodulation at Innovation Park, is the Medical Director for FSU Behavioral Health at Apalachee Center, and Co-Director for the FSU Mood and Anxiety Center of Excellence in the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Social Medicine. Kozel's work with neuromodulation techniques like TMS has included research, clinical care, teaching, and dissemination for over 20 years. His research uses brain imaging and brain stimulation to better understand and treat neuropsychiatric disorders with the focus of improving the lives of patients with these devastating disorders.

Nolan R. Williams, M.D.

Dr. Williams is an Assistant Professor within the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Director of the Stanford Brain Stimulation Lab. Dr. Williams has a broad background in clinical neuroscience and is triple board-certified in general neurology, general psychiatry, as well as behavioral neurology and neuropsychiatry. In addition, he has specific training and clinical expertise in the development of brain stimulation methodologies under Mark George, MD. Themes of his work include (a) examining the use of spaced learning theory in the application of neurostimulation techniques, (b) development and mechanistic understanding of rapid-acting antidepressants, and (c) identifying objective biomarkers that predict neuromodulation responses in treatment-resistant neuropsychiatric conditions. He has published papers in high impact peer-reviewed journals including Brain, American Journal of Psychiatry, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. Results from his studies have gained widespread attention in journals such as Science and New England Journal of Medicine Journal Watch as well as in the popular press and have been featured in various news sources including Time, Smithsonian, and Newsweek. Dr. Williams received two NARSAD Young Investigator Awards in 2016 and 2018 along with the 2019 Gerald R. Klerman Award. Dr. Williams received the National Institute of Mental Health Biobehavioral Research Award for Innovative New Scientists in 2020.

Albert Leung, M.D., Associate Professor

Dr. Leung is a Professor of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine at the UC San Diego, School of Medicine.  He is the Director, Center for Pain and Headache Research at the VA San Diego Healthcare System (VASDHS).  He is the founder of the Anesthesia Pain Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) treatment clinic at the VASDHS. Under his leadership, this rapidly growing clinical service provides TMS therapy for veterans with intractable chronic pain conditions such as mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) related headaches and other co-morbid conditions. In recent years, his research group has completed several novel studies in validating the efficacy and mechanisms of rTMS in alleviating MTBI related headache and other service related chronic pain conditions with correlated functional imaging studies. He is at the forefront of promoting TMS as a treatment for pain.

Martijn Arns, Ph.D.

Dr. Arns graduated in 1998 as a biological psychologist at Radboud University in Nijmegen and received his PhD in 2011 at Utrecht University on the topic of 'EEG-based personalized medicine for ADHD and depression' and is specialized in neurobiological aspects of ADHD and depression. In 2001 he founded Research Institute Brainclinics as an independent research institute, where he further specializes in advancing the understanding of psychiatric disorders through brain imaging (QEEG, ERPs), chronobiology and sleep, Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), which knowledge should aid in a future of personalized medicine in mental health. He is specialized in the development and application of neuromodulation techniques such as neurofeedback in the treatment of ADHD and rTMS in the treatment of depression and OCD. He supervises a team of senior researchers and PhD's at Brainclinics. Dr. Arns collaborates with many international colleagues and published more than 100 scientific publications. Dr. Arns is also affiliated with Utrecht University, department of experimental psychology. In 2006 he founded Psychology Practice Brainclinics where new innovative treatments (rTMS, Neurofeedback) and assessments (sleep, QEEG) were pioneered and validated. In 2015 the Psychology Practice Brainclinics was acquired by the neuroCare Group and he serves as an adviser for protocols and assessments developed for neuroCare Clinics worldwide.

Abraham Zangen, Ph.D.

Professor Zangen is the Head of the Brain Stimulation and Behavior Lab and the Chair of the PsychoBiology Brain Program at Ben-Gurion University in Israel. His research is directed at identifying and understanding altered neuroplasticity in psychiatric disorders – primarily depression, addiction, and ADHD.

He studies the effects of repeated brain stimulation on markers for neuroplasticity and on behavioral outcomes in animal models for depression and addiction, as well as in psychiatric patients. He has developed with Dr. Yiftach Roth unique deep transcranial magnetic stimulation coils for the treatments of depression, addiction, OCD, and ADHD.

The technology he and Dr. Roth has developed for the treatment of depression was already approved by the FDA and other regulatory bodies, while other versions of the coils they have developed are being tested for their efficacy in other psychiatric and neurological disorders.

His early work in this field led to the establishment of Brainsway, a company that commercializes the technologies he developed with his colleagues.

Professor Zangen has published over 150 peer-reviewed articles, reviews and book chapters. He was rewarded with numerous personal prizes for his scientific achievements, including the Medical Futures Innovation Award in London, the Sieratzki Prize for Advances in Neuroscience and the Juludan Prize at the Technion, and he has received several distinguished research grants including NIH, H2020, and ISF funding.

Scott Aaronson, M.D., MD

Dr. Aaronson is Director of Clinical Research Programs at Sheppard Pratt Health System in Baltimore, Maryland, where he has been responsible for developing a research program dedicated to the development of medications, devices and genetic tests for the treatment of illnesses across the spectrum of psychiatric disorders. He is Principal Investigator for studies in various phases and presentations of affective illness, psychosis and dementia. He has particularly been involved with the development of new strategies, both pharmacologic and device based, to alleviate the symptoms in treatment resistant mood disorders. Dr. Aaronson earned his medical degree with honors from Harvard Medical School in Boston and completed a residency in Psychiatry at McLean Hospital in Belmont, Massachusetts. He is a Clinical Associate Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Maryland, School of Medicine. He is a fellow of the American College of Psychiatrists.

He is a valued member of the Sheppard Pratt community where he provides expert consultation across the system of care for patients with difficult to treat mood and psychotic disorders.

He has published numerous articles on his research and contributed a chapter to a book published in 2014 on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation by Oxford University Press.

Dr. Aaronson is board-certified in Psychiatry and he is a member of several professional organizations, including Distinguished Fellowship in the American Psychiatric Association and the Maryland Psychiatric Society for which he served as President. He also is Chairman of the Data Safety and Management Board for the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

John P O'Reardon, M.D., DFAPA

Dr. O’Reardon received his medical degree from University College Cork, in Ireland. He initially trained in primary care and is board certified in family medicine in Ireland and the UK. He completed his residency training in psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania, and subsequently fellowships in psychopharmacology and in cognitive therapy. He was a Van Ameringen fellow at the Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and is a founding fellow of the Academy of Cognitive Therapy. Dr. O’Reardon is a Diplomate of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology.

Dr. O’Reardon’s clinical and research interests include treatment-resistant mood disorders, the development of novel neuromodulation therapies in psychiatry such as TMS, VNS, tDCS, and deep brain stimulation (DBS) along with cognitive therapy, and the night eating syndrome. He has served as an investigator in numerous clinical trials of therapeutic interventions including medications, cognitive therapy, TMS, VNS, DBS, and tDCS. He was full-time faculty at the University of Pennsylvania for 15 years and attained Associate Professor rank there. He is currently in private practice.

He has made many contributions to the literature in his areas of interest in leading specialty journals including the Archives of General Psychiatry, Biological Psychiatry, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, and the American Journal of Psychiatry. Has more than 100 peer-reviewed scientific publications. He has been teaching faculty at the APA, Institute of Psychiatric Services and International Society for ECT and Neurostimulation (ISEN), Clinical Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Society (CTMSS) annual meetings in the area of mood disorders and neuromodulation treatments.

Geoffrey Grammer, M.D.

Dr. Grammer serves as Greenbrook's Chief Medical Officer where he develops TMS Therapy treatment protocols and oversees the training of staff physicians and technicians.  Dr. Grammer created one of the very first TMS Therapy centers in the United States, and he is valued as a leading practitioner of TMS Therapy by his colleagues.

Andrew Leuchter, M.D.

Dr. Leuchter is a Professor of Psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA.  He also is Director of the Neuromodulation Division and a Senior Research Scientist at the Semel Institute.  Dr. Leuchter is a graduate of Stanford University and the Baylor College of Medicine who joined the UCLA faculty in 1986.

An internationally recognized expert on the treatment of mood disorders, Dr. Leuchter directs the Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Service, which performs more than 5,000 treatments each year for patients with depression, pain, and other neuropsychiatric illness.  He is leading clinical trials to develop novel neuromodulation technologies for the treatment of depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), including synchronized Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (sTMS) and Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation (TNS).  He also has unique expertise in the development of neurophysiologic biomarkers to inform diagnostic and treatment decisions.  A Board-certified electroencephalographer, Dr. Leuchter has shown that changes in brain oscillations early in treatment can be used to select antidepressant treatments that are most likely to benefit an individual patient.

Dr. Leuchter has authored over 150 scientific articles on topics including neuromodulation for the treatment of depression, EEG biomarkers to guide treatment of neuropsychiatric illness, and theories of antidepressant action.